Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis begins with a complete physical examination of the man to determine his general state of health and identify any physical problems that may impact his fertility. The doctor also interviews the couple about their sexual habits. If the physical examination and history do not indicate any reason for the couple's inability to conceive, the next step is to conduct testing to identify the cause of infertility.

With modern technology and methods, the number of treatment options for male infertility has expanded. Depending on the cause of infertility, a surgical procedure may be necessary to correct a defeat or remove an obstruction. The most common procedures performed in an outpatient setting. In either procedure, the surgeon reconnects the vas deferens, the tube in the scrotum through which the sperm passes.

Blockages in the vas deferens are repaired with a similar technique. The vas deferens is surgically split, the blockage is removed, and the ends of the tube are reconnected. When the or gin al vasectomy was performed many years previously, an additional blockage may have formed in the epididymis, the coiled tube that lies against the testicle where sperm cells mature. Blockage at the epididymis also can occur due to infection or injury. Whatever the cause, the surgeon will fix the problem by bypassing the blockage in the epididymis in a procedure called a vasoepididymostomy.




The main sign of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child. Often, there are no other obvious signs or symptoms. In some cases, however, an underlying problem such as an inherited hormonal imbalance or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm may cause signs and symptoms.

It Is Suggested to See a Doctor If You:

  • Are unable to conceive a child after a year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Have erection or ejaculation problems, low sex drive, or other problems with sexual function
  • Have pain, discomfort, a lump or swelling in the testicle area
  • Have a lower than normal sperm count (fewer than 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen)
  • Have a history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems
  • Have had groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery